‘Shiva Shayana Chaturdashi Yatra’ Lingaraj Temple Bhubaneshwar



INTRODUCTION

 

At the end of the month of Aṣāḍha (June-July), ‘Śiva Śayana Ćaturdaśi Yātrā’ was observed on Śukla Pakśa Ćaturdaśi of the Oḍia calendar, which fell on July 26, 2018.

 

Lingaraja Temple, 19th century painting by James Fergusson (Source: Columbia.edu)

Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha, is known as the city of temples. Bhubaneswar derived its name from the city’s presiding God, Bhagawān Śiva locally known as ‘Tribhuvanēśvara’ which means ‘the Lord of the Three Worlds’. Popularly, Bhagawān Śiva is referred to as ‘Bhubanēśvara’, and after him the city is known as ‘Bhubaneswar’.  Tribhuvanēśvara is also known as ‘Lingarāja’. Lingarāja means ‘the King of lingams or lingas’. Bhubaneswar is also referred to as ‘Ekāmra Kśetra’ (as per ‘Ekāmra Purāña’ and other scriptures), as Lingarāja Mahāprabhu originated under a Mango tree called ‘ekāmra’ (mango in Sanskrit is referred to as āmra). Lingarāja Mahāprabhu is also described as ‘Swayambhū Linga’ (i.e. self-originated). This temple is dedicated to Hari-Hara a form of Bhagawān Viṣñu and Bhagawān Śiva.

 

Rukuna Ratha Yatra (Source: Odisha 360)

The festivals of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu are held throughout the year. A festival is called ‘yātrā’, meaning ‘journey’ of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu. The nibandhakāras of Odisha have mentioned 14 festivals or ‘Ćaturdaśa Yātrās’. The Kālasāra of Gadadhara Rajaguru speaks of the major 14 festivals with their timings and rituals. The ‘Sthala Mahātmyams’ such as  the Ekāmra Purāña, Ekāmra Ćandrikā and Svarñadri Mahōdaya provide details about the rituals of these festivals. Śiva Śayana Ćaturdaśi, or the Śayana Yātrā, is one of those Ćaturdaśa yātrās like Mahā Śivarātri, Rukuna Ratha Yātrā and Ćandana Yātrā. This festival has a unique significance in Ekāmra Kśetra of Odisha, i.e. especially for Bhubaneswar.

 

Ćandana Yātrā of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu (Source: Odisha 360)

Celbrated on Śukla Pakśa Ćaturdaśi of the month of Aṣāḍha, it marks the day Lingarāja Mahāprabhu retires to sleep on the fourteenth day of bright fortnight of Aṣāḍha, and hence this festival is called ‘Śayana Ćaturdashi’. From this day Bhagawān Lingarāja Mahāprabhu goes into deep sleep for 4 months

As per scriptures, when the Sun moves into Mithuna Rāśi (Gemini) the ‘Śayana Yātrā’ of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu is observed and similarly when the Sun moves into Tula Rāśi (Libra) the ‘Uṭhāpana Yātrā’ (i.e. waking up of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu) is observed.

Before Śayana Yātrā of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu other devatās like Viṣñu, Agni, Kartikēya, Indra, Gañēsha, Yama (Dharmarāj), Bhāskara (Sūrya), Vāyu, Prithvi Baruna, Brahmā and others go to sleep in their respective nakśatras (lunar mansion) and tithis (lunar day). All these devatās change their side of sleeping on their ‘Pārśwa Paribartana Yātrā’ day and wake up on ‘Uṭhāpana Yātrā’ day, respectively, based on nakśatras and tithis.


VIDHIS

Jagamohana Temple inside Lingaraja Temple Complex
(Source: Asutosh Mohanty)

As per Ekāmra Ćandrika (in ancient days), in the evening hours of Śukla Pakśa Ćaturdaśi, golden coloured Ćalanti Pratimā[1], i.e. vigraha (loosely, ‘form’), of Devi Mā Pārvati and Silver Coloured Ćalanti Pratimā of Tribhuvaneśvara (vigraha of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu especially sculpted for this festival) are dressed up magnificently with clothes and ornaments. This is followed by special pūja (worship) of Devi Mā Pārvati and Tribhuvaneśvara by chanting of various mantras by Badu Sēvakas.

After this pūja is completed, Ćalanti Pratimā’s of Devi Mā Pārvati and Tribhuvaneśvara are placed on well-decorated Pālanka (bed or couch) in sleeping position and then the door is closed.

Since the advent of the worship of Hari-Hara form in Ekāmra Kśetra (Hari: Viṣñu & Hara: Śiva) all the aforementioned rituals are done for Golden Coloured Ćalanti Pratimā (i.e. Vigraha with Devi Mā Pārvati on one side and Devi Mā Lakśmi on other side) and Silver Coloured Ćalanti Pratimā (i.e. Vigraha with Tribhuvaneśvara on one side and Viṣñu on the other side).

 

Devi Mā Pāravati Temple in Lingaraja Temple Complex

On Uṭhāpana Ćaturdaśi, Devi Mā Pāravati and Tribhuvaneśvara rise up from the bed. Uṭhāpana Yātrā is observed on Śukla Pakśa Ćaturdaśi of Kartika Oḍia Month (this year it will be observed on November 21, 2018).

During this period of 4 months, Bhagawān Parśurāma protects Ekāmra Kśetra. On the auspicious occasion of Parśurāmāśtami (Śukla Pakśa Aśtami of Aṣāḍha Month), Ćalanti Pratimā of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu goes to Parashurameshvara Mandira (temple) and allocates the duty of protecting Ekāmra Kśetra to Bhagawān Parśurāma for these 4 months. Starting from Śiva Śayana Ćaturdaśi upto 4 months when Lingarāja Mahāprabhu goes into deep sleep, Parśurāma is said to protect Ekāmra Kśetra.

In other Śiva Mandiras in Odisha ‘Pārśwa Paribartana Yātrā’ is observed. On this day, Ćalanti Pratimās change their side of sleeping. ‘Pārśwa Paribartana Yātrā’ is observed on Śukla Pakśa Ćaturdaśi of Bhādra (Bhadrapada) month Oḍia calendar (this year it was observed on September 23-24, 2018). In Lingaraja Temple, this vidhi is not observed.

It is believed that bhaktas (devotees) who get darshan (view of the Deity) of Lingarāja Mahāprabhu on Śayana and Uṭhāpana Yātrās earn a lot of puñya (merit).

 

Please read in the next section about the Chandana Yatra of Jagannatha Mahaprabhu here

 

Cover Picture: (Source: Bhubaneswar.me)

 


 

References:

  1. Ekamra Purana, 69.28-30; Ekamra Chandrika, 11.142-159; Kapila Samhita, 19.26-27 (Parsumramastami)
  2. Ekamra Purana, 69.31-42; Ekamra Chandrika, 12.1-20 (Śiva Shayana Chaturdashi)
  3. Ekamra Purana, 69.79-82; Ekamra Chandrika, 12.73-85 (Uṭhāpana Chaturdashi)
  4. U. N. Dhal ,”A Note on the Sacred Rituals at Ekāmra Kśetra (Bhubaneswar)”
  5. Sri Lingaraja & Badu Niyoga, Chitrasen Batu (Odia Book)
  6. Sei Samaya Eei Sahara Bhubaneswar, Suresh Balabantaray (Odia Book)
  7. Kalasara of Gadadhara Rajaguru
  8. K.S.Behera “The Lingaraja Temple of Bhubaneswar – Art and Cultural Legacy”

 



Author: 
Asutosh Mohanty

Published: Aug 01, 2018

Acknowledgement by Author:

I am really thankful to Kar Nana (Sanskrit scholar and Pūjāri) for his knowledge on our scriptures and also for guiding me. I am also thankful to my parents for their valuable help in translating regional texts.

 

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[1]
Ćalanti Pratimā in Oḍia folklore refers to a living God/Goddess